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Worldwide, Siberia is well known primarily for its long, harsh winters, with a January average of −25 °C (−13 °F), as well as its extensive history of use by Russian and Soviet administrations as a place for prisons, labor camps, and exile.
(also "Syopyr" (sʲɵpᵻr)), a folk, which spoke a language that later evolved into the Ugric languages.
First, groups of traders and Cossacks began to enter the area.
The Russian Army was directed to establish forts farther and farther east to protect new settlers from European Russia.
The Mongols conquered a large part of this area early in the 13th century.
With the breakup of the Golden Horde, the autonomous Khanate of Sibir was established in the late 15th century.
The Siberian Traps were formed by one of the largest-known volcanic events of the last 500 million years of Earth's geological history.
Some 230,000 Russians had settled in Siberia by 1709.
The first great modern change in Siberia was the Trans-Siberian Railway, constructed during 1891–1916.
Towns such as Mangazeya, Tara, Yeniseysk and Tobolsk were developed, the last being declared the capital of Siberia.
At this time, Sibir was the name of a fortress at Qashlik, near Tobolsk.